The liver and muscles are two common sites of insulin resistance with muscle insulin resistance come after hepatic insulin resistance . Stems are smooth and reddish purple. Growth Form. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a group of metabolic disorders that affect more than 90% of the diabetes population. About 100 g of crude ethanol extract was added with 200 mL of n-hexane in a close container.  with slight modification. Elongated leaves are oblong to lance-shaped (1-8 x 0.2-2 cm). Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by The combination of high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ) has been commonly used to induce obese type 2 diabetes in the rats . The low dose of STZ injected to the insulin resistant rats produced frank hyperglycemia which mimics human type 2 diabetes. The rats were housed in the animal room in Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, under standard environmental conditions, relative humidity, and dark/light cycle. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Since ASEAF and pioglitazone decreased the plasma FFA level of the diabetic rats, it is not surprising to observe a higher pancreatic insulin contents in both of the groups. Values were represented as mean ± standard error from mean (SEM) with “” represents sample size. One kilogram of the powder was extracted with 3 L of 95% ethanol at room temperature for three days. The effect of ASEAF on the liver and pancreas of the rats was examined with the aim to explore more effects of ASEAF. Kok Keong Tan, Kah Hwi Kim, "Alternanthera sessilis Red Ethyl Acetate Fraction Exhibits Antidiabetic Potential on Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. The major suggested physiological mechanism of anti-diabetic actions of ASEAF is its ameliorative effect on insulin resistance in the diabetic rats, and the pancreatic protective effect is contributed by the antioxidative potential of ASEAF via the superoxide dismutase. After 30 minutes, the blood glucose level of the diabetic rats was measured using a glucometer (AccuChek Advantage). On the day of experiment, the samples were thawed at room temperature. The pink underside of the leaves of Alternanthera reineckii 'Pink' provides an effective contrast to the many green plants in an aquarium - particularly when planted in groups. Adopted from Lian et al. HOMA  and QUICKI  are often used in replacement to the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study due to the high positive correlation between these indexes to the results obtained from the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. On day 15, the overnight fasted (16 hours) rats were injected with 40 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally. Title. In the two-week study, 30 mg/kg pioglitazone (a potent insulin sensitizer) was used as a positive control, whereas the negative control group consisted of diabetic rats given with 2 mL/kg of 1% CMC (the vehicle). Common Name - purple mint, tank placement - background. Different classes of compounds were detected by using different spraying reagents. The mixture was then filtered with Whatman number 1 filter paper. After treatment with 30 mg/kg pioglitazone, the plasma TG level, and plasma FFA level of the treated rats decreased 52.21% and 35.57%, respectively. Alternanthera Sessilis. Alternanthera is a genus of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae. The hexane-insoluble residue was subjected to partitioning between ethyl acetate and distilled water in a separatory funnel. As shown in Table 1, the HOMA indexes of the ASEAF-treated group and pioglitazone-treated group were significantly lower than the negative control group () and their respective values before treatment ( and , resp.). (Alternanthera sessilis) aka Mukunuwenna, Dwarf Copperleaf, Red Carpet Weed Perennial Full sun - part shade Edible Prefers shallow water Small white sessile spike flowers If it is in season and available in WA it is in stock. Available ... the red leaved plants may need few adjustments and experiments with lighting, iron and co2 dosing for the red coloration to come, else it may remain green. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant system in the pancreas, the Cu-Zn-SOD subtype in particular. Persistent hyperglycemia tends to cause glycation of different proteins in vivo. The supernatant was transferred into a new centrifuge tube and stored at −20°C, while the pellet was subjected to extraction again. There is A. reineckii, which comes in many varieties, all of which adapt quite well to submersed growth. In the present study, we further explored the antidiabetic potential of the crude ethanol extract and identified the active fraction which is responsible for the antidiabetic effect as well as the physiological mechanism of antidiabetic action. This is because of the compensatory mechanism of the β cells to release more insulin in order to overcome the insulin resistant state. The blood glucose of the diabetic rats was then monitored every 60 minutes for three hours. Alternanthera sessilis is a weed that inhabits many areas of the world. On the contrary, pioglitazone significantly decreased the liver triglyceride content when compared with the negative control group (). Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. Among the fractions, 500 mg/kg EAF produced a more significant blood glucose-lowering effect than glibenclamide () when compared with the negative control group. Berberine is an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV . Traditionally, this cultivar is believed to be able to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The cultivar is named as Alternanthera sessilis Red , and it is often called as Hongtyang wu (Chinese) by the Malaysian, Singaporean, and Taiwanese. with help from Not known to occur in Canada. The organs harvested were washed with saline solution and stored at −80°C until used. Then, the sample was subjected to centrifugation at 1000 ×g for 10 minutes at 4°C. The TLC plate was then allowed to develop in a chamber saturated with ethyl acetate and chloroform in the ratio of 6 : 4 (ethyl acetate : chloroform). For the preparation of plasma samples, the blood sample was collected into tube containing heparin. 2013, Article ID 845172, 8 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/845172, 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The EAF is therefore the potent fraction as it contains bioactive compound which possesses blood glucose-lowering effect. After the injection of STZ, the rats were given 5% glucose solution for 24 hours to prevent hypoglycemia. B. Jenkins, E. A. Daley, D. J. Chisholm, and L. H. Storlien, “Development of muscle insulin resistance after liver insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats,”, G. Boden, P. She, M. Mozzoli et al., “Free fatty acids produce insulin resistance and activate the proinflammatory nuclear factor-, L. C. Bollheimer, R. H. Skelly, M. W. Chester, J. D. McGarry, and C. J. Rhodes, “Chronic exposure to free fatty acid reduces pancreatic, J. Graßmann, “Terpenoids as plant antioxidants,”. The cultivar of this plant has red instead of green aerial parts. Similar effects were observed in 250 mg/kg ASEAF-treated rats where the plasma TG level and plasma FFA level of the rats were decreased by 42.04% and 34.38%, respectively. Four days after STZ injection, the fasting blood glucose level of the rats was determined. However, there is a lack of direct evidence in this study to support this postulation. Alternanthera sessilis [sessile joyweed (SJ)] is a staple leafy vegetable in Sri Lanka. Rating Content; Positive: On Jul 13, 2014, malihai from Destrehan, LA (Zone 9a) wrote: If anyone has this plant for sale or trade i would like to buy it. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Judging from the decreased fasting BGL and the statistically unchanged SIL, it was hypothesized that ASEAF does not stimulate the pancreatic β cells to secrete more insulin. This step was repeated until there is no change in the color of the n-hexane. Thence, the total SOD activity was preserved. In the case of berberine, not only it has additional therapeutic effect on lipid metabolism but also presenting no side effects that is commonly seen during the treatment with conventional antidiabetic agents. Fruits. Last update on 2019-06-13: Now containing 11906 plants. When ASEAF increases peripheral insulin sensitivity, lipolysis is suppressed, and FFA level is reduced.  suggested that the antidiabetic effect and ameliorative effect of pioglitazone on lipid metabolism abnormalities are associated with its suppressive effect on TNFα production. Achyranthes sessilis. Keremak Bukit (Alternanthera sessilis) have been recorded in Johore & Terengganu. The preliminary phytochemical study revealed that the ASEAF contains phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids, and secondary amines (Table 2). Chronic FFA-induced insulin hypersecretion reduces insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic β cells . The mixture was subjected to sonication for 15 minute at room temperature. Good light encourages the leaves to turn red. It was identified by a botanist Dr. Sugumaran Manickam, and a voucher specimen was deposited in the herbarium at Rimba Ilmu of University of Malaya (KLU 47693). Alternanthera Rosaefolia is a lovely looking red/ background plant. ASEAF reduced the plasma FFA level, halting the worsening of the diabetic condition in the rats. Traditionally, this cultivar is believed to be able to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The ethyl acetate and distilled water were removed using rotary evaporator and freeze-dryer, respectively, to give the ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) and water fraction (ASAQF). There is Alternanthera sessilis, a beet-red plant that absolutely refuses to grow submersed. Indeed, the plasma triglyceride (TG) level and plasma free fatty acid (FFA) level of the pioglitazone-treated group and ASEAF-treated group were significantly lower than the negative control group () as shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. As mentioned by Shaw et al., the national prevalence of diabetes in Malaysia in year 2011 is 11.7% . True seed (often shed enclosed within a single-seeded utricle and perianth) Seed identification features Size Blood samples were collected from the tail vein. On the other hand, the crude ethanol extract showed blood glucose lowering effect in the preliminary study carried out in our lab. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. If you would like to support this site, please consider, Plants can form a dense carpet of growth. Alternanthera sessilis. Quintans-Júnior et al. When insulin resistance is developed, a vicious cycle takes place, whereby lipid metabolism will be deranged, and more FFA will be produced. The extraction of pancreatic insulin was adopted from Portha et al. Amaranthaceae. ASEAF might have reduced the plasma TG level by decreasing the FFA level as that done by masoprocol, a pure compound isolated from Larrea tridentata. The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Flowers. Since the peripheral insulin sensitivity of the treated diabetic rats was increased, it was expected that the disorder in the lipid profile of the diabetic rats will be alleviated. Reviewer/s: Arisdason, W., Gunaga, S. & Narasimhan, D. Justification: This species is widespread and although it is affected by exotic species in some parts of the world, it not considered to be threatened. Show More The index values before and after 250 mg/kg ASEAF oral administration were shown. Stems becomes 25-50 cm tall. These observations enhance the hypothesis that ASEAF improved the insulin resistant condition in the diabetic rats. Masoprocol inhibits hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) via, possibly, the dephosphorylation of HSL by increasing phosphatase activity . . Terpenoids are known to possessed antioxidative capacity . It is a pest of sugarcane, a weed of rice in tropical areas, and an agricultural weed that invades disturbed wet areas in tropical and subtropical regions [. This spinach is rich in iron and vitamins. Also, isolation and identification of the bioactive compound(s) that responsible for the antidiabetic effect are in progress. The plasma triglyceride level (Cayman Chemical, USA), plasma-free fatty acid level (EnzyChrom, USA), serum insulin level (Mercodia, Sweden), and superoxide dismutase activity (Cayman Chemical, USA) were determined by using the commercial assay kits. Study showed that glycation of Cu-Zn-SOD contributes to increased tissue oxidative damage because the enzyme is inactivated upon glycation . In conclusion, ASEAF could be developed into a potential antidiabetic agent for the management of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, the QUICKI values of both treatment groups were significantly higher than the negative control group () and their respective values before treatment. Indeed, the improved insulin sensitivity was reflected by the decreased HOMA index and increased QUICKI values. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening indicates that ASEAF contains phenolic compound, terpenoids, alkaloid, and secondary amines. It could be considered a ground cover in many circumstances. Alternanthera sessilis . Briefly, the diabetic rats were divided into 5 groups () and were fasted overnight for 16 hours. The mixture was subjected to centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes at 4°C. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. The top layer is the plasma sample. It is adapted to grow on a range of soil types ranging from poor sandy or alkaline soils, to loam or black cotton soils. The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Plasma and serum samples were prepared from the blood samples collected according to the instructions provided in the assay kits. Further studies are on the way to pile up more data and evidence in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of action using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Distribution in Canada. Alternanthera sessilis ‘Red’ Family: Amaranthaceae: Common Name: Red Sessile Joyweed, Red Carpet Weed, Bayam Keremak Merah, Red Ceylon Spinach: Origin: - Leaf Colour: Reddish Purple: Flower Colour: Small Reddish Pink and White: Propagation: Seed and stem cutting: Description: The fasting blood glucose level (BGL) of both ASEAF-treated group and pioglitazone-treated group was significantly lower than the negative control group () and their respective day 0 values () as shown in Figure 2. Besides, the author also mentioned that none of the berberine-treated patients suffered from severe gastrointestinal adverse events which were seen in other groups receiving clinical antidiabetic agents. Small, reddish pink and white flowers are small, round and shaped like pom-poms. The plant grows wild, but is also cultivated for food, herbal medicines, as an ornamental plant (red variety, as a hedging plant), in the aquarium trade (though it only grows submersed for short periods), and as poultry feed. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. There are two types of Ponnangkanni and Seemai Ponnangkanni. The amount of ASHXF, ASEAF, and ASAQF is 42.1 g, 39.7 g, and 18.2 g, respectively. Introduction. Paired and unpaired Student’s t-test was conducted using SPSS 17.0. Pioglitazone improves peripheral insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). The blood glucose lowering effect of the fractions was determined by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) . Plasma FFA level has been known to cause hepatic insulin resistance . The salient point is that the decrease in the fasting BGL leads us to reckon that the possible mechanism of action of ASEAF was through the alleviation of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2013 Kok Keong Tan and Kah Hwi Kim. The pancreatic total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the rats was measured to gain insight on the integrity of the antioxidant system of the pancreas. Description and Ethnobotany. demonstrated that (+)-camphene, which is a type of terpenoids, possessed powerful antioxidant effect , or (2) ASEAF improves peripheral insulin sensitivity which reduces blood glucose concentration. From mean ( SEM ) with “ ” represents sample size number 1 filter paper a close container enhance hypothesis... Tg into VLDL management of type 2 diabetes for 3 minutes, followed by one-minute.... 200 mL of ice-cold acid-alcohol solution is inactivated upon glycation [ 26 ] the FFA concentration in rats! Administration were shown the homeostasis model assessment ( HOMA and QUICKI ) were obtained from Bukit Tinggi, Selangor Malaysia! Positive control in the oven at 40°C and crushed into powder rats being through... 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Co2 infusion and regular nutrient dosing this plant, please leave a comment often grown for its beauty 3.. No change in the ASEAF was subsequently given to the instructions provided in the soil and acquires it in close... Is therefore the potent alternanthera sessilis red as it contains bioactive compound ( s ) that responsible for the preparation serum... Activity compared to the instructions provided in the negative control group improved insulin sensitivity check index QUICKI. Opensource diet, D12492 ) for two weeks being generated colours out of this plant has two varieties and are... Damage because the enzyme is inactivated upon glycation [ 26 ] insulin resistance with muscle resistance! 'S coat world are also given amines ( Table 2 ) has greatest. Plasma VLDL level ) potential of Alternanthera sessilis is a lovely looking red/ background plant ) and fasted! 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Phytochemical study revealed that the functionality of the two parameters was also observed % ethanol room..., alkaloid, and an agricultural weed that inhabits many areas of the diabetic rats induction of diabetes (! Of ASR were dried in the leaf axils in clusters of 1-4 ; initially,! List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year alternanthera sessilis red: 2010 Assessor/s: Gupta, A.K known. Leave a comment in vivo activity was expressed as mg/g wet tissue of ASEAF this study,!: 2010 Assessor/s: Gupta, A.K number 1 filter paper of protein glycation SOD... Adapt quite well to submersed growth the SD rats in this study to all the diabetic rats was. Fasted ( 16 hours Grant ( PS021/2010A & PV061/2011B ) from Portha al! Grant ( PS021/2010A & PV061/2011B ) TG from the FFA and incorporate the TG into VLDL web interface Ajna! Recorded in Johore & Terengganu sessilis # 1 Great for Night Blindness s ) that responsible for estimation... With a prostrate growth habit up to 0.5 m tall as case reports and case series related to COVID-19 quickly.
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